Apply 2 – 3 pumps to face following Smooth Serum at night.
For use on normal and dry skin
Note: Do not use if pregnant or breast-feeding
Note: Sunscreen should be used during daylight hours when using Vitamin A
Size – 50ml: Lasts 3 – 4 months when used regularly
Vitamin A: Retinal (or Retinaldehyde)
Vitamin A has the most and strongest evidence for reducing the signs of skin aging(1). It has been shown to stimulate skin cell growth and collagen production(2). Retinal is the most effective and least irritating from of Vitamin A1 (Other commonly used forms of Vitamin A including Retinol and Retinyl Palmitate have weak or no evidence). It reduces the appearance of fine lines and pigmentation and increases skin elasticity and is also useful in managing acne(3)
(1) Rivers 2008, Babamiri 2009, Mukherjee 2006, Sorg 2006, Didierjean 1999, Boisnic 1999
(2) Diridollou 1999, Creidi 1998, Fluhr 1999, Boisnic 1999
(3) Dreno 2005, Dreno 2009, Tran 2005
Vitamin B3: Niacinamide
An Anti-Oxidant, assists in repair of cell DNA. Improves skin barrier function (1) (decreases moisture loss), increases skin elasticity (2)and reduces pigmentation and skin yellowing (3).
(1) Ghering 2004, Crowther 2008, Christman 2012
(2) Bisset 2005, Kawada 2008
(3) Hakozaki 2002, Bisset 2004
PurifiedWater, Macadamia Ternifolia Seed Oil, Caprylic/capric triglyceride, Alcohol, Niacinamide, Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis (Sweet Almond) Oil, Glycerin, Sucrose Distearate, Cetearyl Alcohol, Sucrose Stearate, Polyacrylamide & C13-14 Isoparaffin & Laureth-7, Tocopheryl Acetate, Glycolic Acid, Dehydroacetic Acid & Benzyl Alcohol, Xanthan Gum, Retinal, Oil Lavender Bulgaria, Pelargoneum Roseum, Rose Damascena